被动语态用法小结(精选3篇)

  1. 1被动语态用法小结
  2. 2英语被动语态用法小结小结
  3. 3被动语态用法小结之理论篇

现以为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成,不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁,语态主动语态与被动语态和时态是永远不可分的两个基本语法现象,现在进行时的被动在我离开时房间正在粉刷。

被动语态用法小结2017-11-09 17:36:09 | #1楼回目录

Grammar

1. The students are made to write a composition every other day.

2. Thousands of people got killed in the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

3. Effective measures have to be taken to combat bird flu.

4. The poem reads smoothly.

5. I am very surprised at your response.

6. The flowers are being watered.

7. They were reported to have been sent into the moon last year.

8. More trees will be planted in spring next year.

9. The exit sign may be stuck on the side door.

10. Generally speaking, no one likes being made fun of in public.

1. 当动词不定式在一些动词后面作宾语补足语时,在被动语态中不能省略to,这组动词为感官动词(see, hear, watch, notice, observe 等)和使役动词(make, have等)。(例1)

2. get 用于被动语态,相当于be。(例2)

3. 根据语境需要选择恰当的情态动词用于被动语态,表能力,义务,可能性等。(例3,9)

4. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意思。(例4) 又如:

(1) Cotton doesn’t dry quickly.

(2) The door won’t shut.

(3) The pen writes smoothly.

5. 有些动词形式上是被动语态,但功能是形容词。这类词非常多,例如: surprised; annoyed; pleased; delighted; disappointed 等。(例5)

6. 根据语境确立正确的被动语态的动词构成形式。其基本形式是be + done;其进行式是be + being + done;完成式是:have / has been done;将来式是:be going to / will / shall be done。其形式不一一列举,同学们可以在实际运用中归类总结。

(例6,8)

7. 固定句型在被动语态中的使用。主语+被动结构+动词不定式: be said / believed / reported / thought / supposed / hoped / ... to do sth.。(例7)

8. 短语动词用于被动语态中。(例10)

英语被动语态用法小结小结2017-11-09 17:36:10 | #2楼回目录

一、语态概述

英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的。英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。

例如:Many people speak Chinese.

谓语:speak的动作是由主语many people来执行的。

被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。例如:Chinese is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。

二、被动语态的构成

被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。现以speak为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成。

一般现在时:am/is/are+spoken

一般过去时:was/were+spoken

一般将来时:will/shall be+spoken

现在进行时:am/is/are being+spoken

过去进行时:was/were being+spoken

现在完成时:have/has been+spoken

过去完成时:had been + spoken

三、被动语态的用法

(1)不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。

例如:Some new computers were stolen last night. 一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。(不知道电脑是谁偷的)

This bridge was founded in 1981.这座桥竣工于1981年。

(2)强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。

例如:The glawas broken by Mike.玻璃杯是迈克打破的。 This book was written by him.这本书是他写的。

Your homework must be finished on time.你们的家庭作业必须及时完成。

四、主动语态变被动语态的方法

(1)把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

(2)把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词) (根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数,以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定be的形式)。

(3)把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。例如:

All the people laughed at him.

He was laughed at by all people.

They make the bikes in the factory.

The bikes are made by them in the factory.

He cut down a tree.

A tree was cut down by him.

五、含有情态动词的被动语态

含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带to的情态动词变成被动语态后“to”仍要保留。 We can repair this watch in two days.

This watch can be repaired in two days.

They should do it at once.

It should be done at once.

六、特殊情况

1.He made the boy work for two hours yesterday.

The boy was made to work by him for two hours yesterday.

2.Mother never lets me watch TV .

I am never let to watch TV by mother.

3.Jack gave Peter a Christmas present just now.

(1)A Christmas present was given to Peter by Jack just now.

(2)Peter was given a Christmas present by Jack just now.

被动语态用法小结之理论篇2017-11-09 17:34:48 | #3楼回目录

1. 语态(主动语态与被动语态)和时态是永远不可分的两个基本语法现象。被动语态中人称、数和时态的变化是通过be的变化表现出来的。其各种时态的变化如下: 一般现在时的被动:am/is/are+done

一般过去时的被动:was/were+done

一般将来时的被动:will/shall be+done

现在进行时的被动:am/is/are being+done

过去进行时的被动:was/were being done

现在完成时的被动:have/has been+done

如:Paper is made from wood. 纸是木头制成的。(一般现在时的被动)

A letter was typed on the computer. 这封信是被电脑打出来的。(一般过去时的被动)

A lecture will be held in the meeting room by professor John. 约翰教授将在会议室举行一个讲座。(一般将来时的被动)

The road is being repaired by construction workers. 建筑工人正在修路。(现在进行时的被动) The room was being painted when I left. 在我离开时,房间正在粉刷。(过去进行时的被动) So far my thesis has been completed. 到目前为止我的论文已经写好。

2. 我们经常使用系动词get来代替be+过去分词表示被动。

Three people got (=were) injured in the accident.

事故中有三个人受伤。

3. 表示“据说”“据信”等,英语中经常以被动语态 “It is said/believed/reported that ...”来表示,相当于“people say/believe/report that”的意思。这类表达方式有一个特殊用法:当主语是it时,动词后接从句;当主语是人或物时,动词后接不定式。

People say he has gone abroad. = It is said that he has gone abroad. = He is said to have gone abroad. 据说他出国了。

It was reported that the shop was closed down due to poor management. = The shop was said to have been closed down due to poor management. 据报道该商店由于经营不善而关闭。

4. 不用于被动语态的情况。

(1)一些动词如surprise, puzzle, astonish, bore, shock, tire, delight,其过去分词形式在某些情况下属于形容词性,不表示被动,而表示某种情绪。例如:

Alice read the letter with a puzzled expression on her face. 艾丽斯看了那封信,面带迷惑。 Are you interested in music? 你对音乐感兴趣吗?

The puppies ran around the delighted children. 小狗们围着欢乐的孩子们跑来跑去。

(2)词组be supposed to do sth表示责任或义务,意为“应该”,与上面动词的被动用法不同。 We are supposed to be here by 8 o’clock. 我们该8点前来这儿。

(3)某些动词词组如:take place, break out, belong to, lead to, consist of等不使用被动语态,例如:

Hard work often leads to success. 艰苦的工作常常导致成功。

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 水由氢和氧组成。

A fire broke out in the next room. 火在隔壁房间着了起来。

The cup doesn’t belong to you. 这个杯子不属于你。

5. 主动形式表被动意义

(1)write, read, sell, wash在某些含义下为不及物动词,并且与well, badly, easily等副词连用

时,不用被动语态,例如:

The clothes wash easily. 这些衣服很好清洗。

The book reads well. 那本书写得不错(浅显易懂)。

The tickets to the play sold well (badly). 那出戏的戏票很畅销(销路不好)。

The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔书写流畅。

(2)某些系动词look, feel, taste, sound, prove, smell, appear, seem, stay, remain等常接形容词作表语。

The silk feels very soft. 丝绸摸起来很柔软。

His new plan proves workable. 他的新计划证明是可行的。

The weather still remained cold in April 虽然已进入四月,天气仍然还很冷。

The milk tasted sour. 那牛奶有酸味。

(3) want, need, require三词后用动名词的主动形式表达被动意义, want/need/require doing= want/need/require to be done。

Your homework needs rewriting.=Your homework needs to be rewritten. 你的作业需要重写。 The baby requires looking after. = The baby requires to be looked after.这小孩需要照顾。

(4) be worth doing表示“值得做”时,其后的动名词用主动形式表达被动意义。不能说be worth being done。例如:

The museum is well worth visiting a second time. 这个博物馆很值得再次参观。

不能说:The museum is well worth being visited.

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